Diseases of premature babies: dangers and complications of "false start"17.09.2022
A premature baby is under the constant supervision of neonatologists of the intensive care unit until his vital and physical indicators approach the norms of a child born on time.
And, of course, along with nursing and rearing premature babies in hospitals, they also undergo a thorough medical examination to identify serious diseases. So, in premature babies, the following pathologies are most often manifested:
Underdeveloped lungs and respiratory pathology
In most babies, lungs form at 36 weeks of gestation. Although there are exceptions, because the development of each child is individual. If the mother already knows that the baby will be born prematurely, she can order an amniocentesis procedure (taking a sample of amniotic fluid for laboratory testing), which can be used to check the level of maturity of the fetus’s lungs. In some cases, mothers may be given steroid injections prior to delivery to speed up the formation of lungs in the fetus. A premature baby whose lungs have not yet formed is at risk of the following complications:
Respiratory distress syndrome , which causes the child to breathe rapidly, irregularly. In this case, nursing a premature baby is carried out by supplying additional oxygen to the lungs (by a respiratory support device), or by using a respirator, or by creating a constant positive pressure in the airways, or by tracheal intubation. In severe cases, the infant is given doses of a surfactant that the lungs lack.
Transient tachypnea of newborns , that is, rapid shallow breathing. This condition can be observed in both premature and full-term infants. Nursing a premature baby in this case, as a rule, passes without medical intervention and takes up to several days. Until the breathing of the newborn has returned to normal, intravenous feeding is used.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia occurs when the lungs of a newborn are damaged. Unfortunately, when preterm infants are treated with a ventilator, their lungs, due to their weakness, cannot always withstand the constant pressure generated by the ventilator. Premature babies who have been placed on a ventilator for more than twenty-eight days are at high risk of developing BPD.